vendredi 24 novembre 2017

Robots tueurs, guerre 4.0/ Dooyeweerd: Artificial Intelligence

Géopolitis, 19.11.2017 | Robots tueurs, guerre 4.0
Des drones ou des robots capables de tuer sans intervention humaine remplaceront-ils bientôt les soldats sur les champs de bataille ? L’intelligence artificielle va transformer les guerres du futur et peut-être les équilibres stratégiques existants.
Andrew Basden offers a Dooyeweerdian perspective on Artificial Intelligence:

Professor Andrew Basden takes a brief look at the debate over artificial intelligence, basing his observations on Herman Dooyeweerd's ground-motives, ie:

Hellenistic: Matter v Form
Medieval: Nature v Grace [Basden: "Nature v Supernature"]
Humanistic: Nature v Freedom
Biblical: Creation, Fall, Redemption [Basden: "Meaning"]
Dooyeweerd writes regarding ground-motives:

'The religious ground-motives in the development of Western civilization are basically the following:

1. The "form-matter" ground-motive of Greek antiquity in alliance with the Roman power motive (imperium).

2. The Scriptural ground-motive of the Christian religion: creation, fall, and redemption through Jesus Christ in communion with the Holy Spirit.

3. The Roman Catholic [Thomistic] ground-motive of "nature-grace", which seeks to combine the two mentioned above.

4. The modern humanistic ground motive of "nature-freedom", in which an attempt is made to bring the three previous motives to a religious synthesis concentrated upon the value of human personality.' 

(Herman Dooyeweerd, Roots of Western Culture: Pagan, Secular, and Christian Options, Paideia Press, 2012, p15) 
(Also called Aspects/ Modes/ Modalities/ Meaning-sides) 
Andrew Basden mentions Dooyeweerd's "aspects", and in particular the "analytical" aspect. In the chart above, this aspect (or "law-sphere") is paled blue for clarity.

Red column A 
shows the aspects to which the human is subject (ie all).

Brown column B 
shows aspects to which the (sensory) animal is subject.

Green column C
shows aspects to which the (organic) plant is subject.

Purple column D
shows aspects to which non-living (mineral) matter is subject.

It will be noted that animals, plants, and minerals function as "subjects" in their designated aspects, but only as "objects" in the remaining aspects above. 

A computer (artificial intelligence) would seem to be qualified in this chart's terminology as "mineral". Even if we consider plausible the development of organic, sentient, "androids" (or Bladerunner-type "replicants"), such consciousness would seem still to function in the "analytical" aspect as machine-like "object" rather than as human-like "subject".

It is crucial to appreciate that in Dooyeweerd's view no cosmic time aspect can be reduced to (or derived from) any other. This resistance reflects the "sphere-sovereignty" of each aspect. To attempt to reduce all aspects to, for instance, the logical (analytical) aspect (ie "logicism"), or to the physical aspect ("materialism"), would reflect a destructively impoverished and imbalanced description of reality. Thus the notion that "consciousness" is just a matter of "physical wiring" is problematically reductionist. 
See also Andrew Basden's webpage: 
The Artificial Intelligence Question: